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Agenda For Change (AFC) Mileage Rates

Agenda For Change (AFC) Mileage Rates

NHS Agenda for Change (AFC) mileage allowance information 

This joint staff side briefing has been drawn up as a guide for members and representatives who have an interest in NHS mileage allowances.

AFC mileage allowances apply to all NHS staff employed on AFC and non-AFC staff that have Section 17, Annexes L&M contained in their terms and conditions of employment.

Payment for using your vehicle for work is reimbursement for the extra costs incurred in using your vehicle on your employers business.

New arrangements for the reimbursement of business travel will commence in July 2013. When these arrangements were first negotiated the current Annex L payment rates were ‘protected’ for the period 2010-2013

The key element of the new arrangements is that there will be a regular check on the cost of motoring undertaken by the NHS Staff Council. The level of reimbursement will reflect the cost of motoring

NHS mileage allowances are covered by Agenda for Change Section 17. Details of mileage rates are in Annex L and information specifically related to lease cars is contained in Annex M.

The briefing includes frequently asked questions with some examples and tables to help make clear the new mileage system and the implications for members.

The NHS Pay Circular that relates to this issue can be found at http://www.nhsemployers.org/Aboutus/Publications/PayCirculars/Pages/pay-circular-AforC-3-2013.aspx

 

 

 

 

Key elements of the new Section 17 effective from July 1 2013

 

  • 67 pence per mile for all car users irrespective of engine size up to 3500 business miles and 24p a mile thereafter.
  • An annual calculation of motoring costs and a twice yearly calculation of fuel costs. If the cost of motoring rises by +5% over the previous twelve months the mileage rate would rise and if it falls below 5% the rate would reduce.
  • Removing the Public Transport Rate (currently 24p) and replacing it with a Reserve Rate which would be 50% of the single rate (33p in July 2013)
  • The full mileage rate to be paid on journeys for training
  • Pedal Cycle rate to rise to 20p a mile
  • Motor Cycle rate rises to 50% of the single rate (33p)
  • Carrying bulky equipment 3p a mile
  • Passenger allowance 5p a mile
    • The single rate calculation will also be used for reimbursing staff for attendance at required training courses. Currently this travel is reimbursed at the lower Public Transport Rate.

 

Mileage Reimbursement

Mileage allowances are paid to cover the extra costs of using a vehicle that you own and maintain, on your employers business. They do not reimburse for fuel costs alone nor are they a payment towards the purchase of a vehicle to undertake work. As the reimbursement is made irrespective of the type or age of the vehicle it is intended to reimburse the average car and driver.  It cannot be guaranteed that reimbursement will cover all the extra costs incurred by drivers. However, reimbursement will continue to be a meaningful contribution towards the extra costs of using a vehicle for work. This means that, as now, for some people reimbursement could be above the actual extra cost incurred. In some cases it will be equal to the extra cost and in some cases it might be below.

Over many years member concern has been that there has been no process to accurately reflect the changing cost of motoring and consequently changes only took place occasionally. The new agreement ensures that all motoring costs are considered annually and fuel costs twice a year. If the overall cost of motoring rises by 5% or more then the reimbursement will rise. If it reduces by more than 5% then the reimbursement would reduce. If motoring costs behave as members expect them to, i.e. that costs will keep rising over time, then the reimbursement will continue to rise over time. The +/- tolerance of 5% ensures that rates do not change with every slight movement up and down in the cost of motoring. This means that the allowance remains stable unless there are meaningful changes in costs. All examples in this document are based on the 67/24p figures as set in May for implementation in July 2013.  If the rate formula had been implemented in 2010 it would have been 54p and 18p a mile. This gives an indication that members are correct that the cost of motoring has been rising and also that the formula is sensitive to changes in those costs.

How you are affected by the new proposals needs to be considered in relation to what proportion of your current mileage is paid for at the present Standard or Regular User Rates and how many miles you might be paid for at Public Transport Rate (PTR). For example in some cases  the total level of reimbursement for ‘normal mileage’ might be reduced but mileage related to undertaking training or coming in to work for ‘on-call’ will be increased for all. In the case of PTR (now called the Reserve Rate) the July rate will be 37% more than the original level of 24p.

If you believe that the level of reimbursement you receive, after considering all the costs you have incurred, and balanced against the effect of any tax relief received results in you being out of pocket then a discussion needs to take place with your manager about how work can be organised to ensure that you are not undertaking excessive travel in the course of your work. The first principle for employers should be to ensure that work is organised in such a way that it limits as much as possible the need for people to use their own vehicle for work. Some employers are now developing arrangements where some travel can be undertaken by public transport, hire vehicle or through the use of a pool car system operated by the employer.

The Public Transport Rate will cease and be replaced by a ‘Reserve Rate’ which would be set at 50% of the single rate.

The new single rate will replace the current Standard and Regular User rates.

The new proposals seek to address a number of issues found to be problematic in the previous system;

u    The incentive to travel maximum miles for maximum reimbursement

u    The wide range of reasons why someone might be on regular, standard or public transport rates

u    The fact that larger engine vehicles, travelling more miles, get greater reimbursement compared with that of greener (or smaller engine) vehicles travelling less miles.

u     The wide range of reimbursement: For example a Regular User in a 1600cc vehicle driving 4000 miles receives 63p a mile while a Standard User in a 1000cc vehicle driving the same distance receives 35p a mile – a difference of £1122 a year.

u    The ‘reactive’ nature of looking at reimbursement rates only when fuel costs rise.

 

The cost of fuel.

Understandably concerns are raised when the cost of fuel rises and the rise then feeds through into an increase in the cost of motoring. However fuel is only one element in the cost of motoring. It is possible for fuel costs to rise but if other costs reduce then the ‘cost of motoring’ could decrease. Likewise it is possible for fuel costs to decrease and for other costs to rise thus making driving more expensive. While fuel is important so are the other major costs, such as the depreciation cost of the vehicle, tax, insurance and the cost of capital used to purchase a vehicle.

Fuel costs are governed by a number of factors; the cost of crude oil, world supply, the level of taxation, the operation of the international oil markets, the UK Government’s ‘fuel escalator’, who you buy your fuel from and where you live. In the UK nearly 60% of the price of a litre of unleaded fuel is taken as tax. The effect of this is that if you were to buy 60 litres of fuel at £1.37 a litre you will be paying £50 in indirect tax. The UK has the tenth highest petrol price and the third highest diesel price in Europe (AA Fuel Price report April 2013). Throughout 2012 petrol cost on average 2.75p a litre more than in 2011 while diesel was 3.5p more expensive.

Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) regularly assess the cost of fuel in order to set Advisory Fuel Rates for those being reimbursed fuel costs per mile while using a company car. This is an indicator of fuel costs per mile, for petrol, LPG and diesel. The last HMRC calculation was undertaken effective from March 1 2013. The table below gives some indication of fuel costs per mile. Information on advisory fuel rates before March 2013 can be found at http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/cars/advisory_fuel_current.htm

Engine Size Petrol per mile LPG per mile Diesel per mile
1400cc or less 15p 10p 13p
1401cc to 2000cc 18p 12p 15p
Over 2000cc 26p 18p 18p

 

The new AFC system: July 2013

NHS Employers and Trade Unions have agreed a new set of proposals that should  be seen in terms of their long term appropriateness rather than just the effect on the date of implementation. The new system contains an element of ‘risk sharing’ between employer and employee in that if car costs rise this will be reflected in the rate paid to NHS employees. If the costs of motoring fall it will result in a reduction of the rate paid to employees. In this both employer and employee share some of the risks involved in the fluctuating cost of motoring.

In the new arrangements some drivers will see an increase in the level of reimbursement. For example based on 67/24p all Standard users will see a rise in reimbursement as will all those who are paid all or some of their mileage at Public Transport Rate.  A number of regular users would also see an increase in reimbursement. However where some Regular Users do little annual mileage or where they do above average NHS  mileage there could be reduction in reimbursement compared to pre-July 2013 levels..

 

The Tax position

An employer can reimburse an employee for the extra costs incurred in using their own vehicle for work. There is no limit as to the level of reimbursement that can be received from an employer. However the HMRC operate the Approved Mileage Allowance Payment (AMAP) system. AMAP enables tax free reimbursement of 45p a mile for the first 10,000 miles and 25p a mile thereafter (cars). Any payment above the AMAP level is taxed on the excess. A payment below may attract Mileage Allowance Relief on the shortfall. There are also AMAP rates for motorcycles and cycles. Employers are not obliged to pay employees at AMAP rates.

Retrospective claims for tax relief can be made and you can discuss this with your local tax office.

Type of Vehicle Tax year 2013/14
Cars up to 10,000 miles 45p a mile and 25p a mile thereafter
Motorcycle 24p a mile
Bicycle 20p a mile

 

Home to work mileage

Employees cannot claim the cost of home to work mileage unless they are a designated home worker. Where excess miles are travelled due to a change of base excess miles can be paid for up to 4 years dependent upon local agreement.

Mileage reimbursement is a ‘payment’ from your employer that can be subject to tax and national insurance deductions on the whole amount. However if the payment is made clearly for costs incurred in the performance of your duties than tax relief can be obtained (See AMAP earlier).

HMRC audits NHS organisations to ensure that all mileage paid for by the employer are subject to the correct application of tax and National Insurance.  HMRC is clear that for the purposes of tax relief  ‘an employee cannot turn what is really an ordinary commuting journey into a business journey simply by arranging a business appointment somewhere on the way just to get relief. To get relief the employee must be able to show that the attendance at that particular place on that occasion was necessary – in a real sense – for the performance of the duties of that employment and was not just a matter of personal convenience’……..’similarly, an employer cannot turn an ordinary commuting journey into a business journey by requiring an employee to stop off on the way to carry out business tasks such as making phone calls’.

If work related visits (or other such tasks) are undertaken on the commute to or from your workplace tax relief can only be gained on the cost of that journey if it is clear to HMRC that it is in the performance of the employee’s duties.

If visits have to be made on the commute to or from work then the employer should be clear that these are ‘required’ both to ensure that they are covered by the employer’s liability and that the reimbursement for the journey attracts tax relief.

If you are reimbursed for travel that is not considered to have been undertaken in the course of your duties then there will be no tax relief available and the full amount will be considered as income and subjected to tax and national Insurance  accordingly.

Background and the consultation research

NHS reimbursement is designed to reimburse the extra costs for those who use a vehicle that they already own, tax and insure on their employers business. The costs associated with new vehicles will be different to old ones, cars bought new will be different to cars purchased second-hand, higher engine CC different to lower, petrol different to diesel and LPG, and unleaded different to super unleaded. To that end it should be seen as reimbursing the average car user for the additional costs incurred.

Individual members (as they do now) will assess to what extent the level of reimbursement covers the extra costs incurred.

Between 2008 and 2010 two pieces of research were undertaken to look at the amount of miles travelled by NHS staff. The first study looked at a small number of organisations in England (rural and urban). The second took place as part of the service wide consultation on the new proposals. This study invited Trusts to send in details of their miles travelled and at what rate. Both pieces of work delivered a similar outcome in respect of data.

  • 65% of Standard Users (SU) travel less than 1000miles compared to 31% of Regular Users (RU)
  • 94% of SU travel 3500 or less compared to 82% of RU
  • 6% of SU travel over 3500 compared to 18% of RU
  • 13% of RU travel over 4000 and 7% over 5000
  • 4% of SU travel over 4000 and 2% over 5000

 

The mileage allowance discussions first commenced in 2008 following increased member concerns over the rising cost of fuel. Fuel costs are one element in the overall cost of motoring. Other costs include; vehicle depreciation, insurance, tax and the cost of capital. Of these costs depreciation (the decrease in the value of the vehicle) can be a key element in the costs of motoring.

Mileage rates were last negotiated in 2008 when there was an increase in rates of 10% and have been protected at this level for the last three years contingent upon a new system being implemented in July 2013. On the basis of a new agreement coming into force   some employers have resisted the chance to develop local mileage agreements and have retained the AFC system.

 

Pre 2013 Changes to AFC Section 17, Annex L and Annex M

As part of the same negotiation changes to Section 17 and Annex L (Mileage rates) & M (Lease cars) have already been made contingent on the new arrangements coming into force in July 2013. In particular, there has been the introduction of a requirement that when a lease car is offered there needs to be a joint consideration of whether a lease car is the most appropriate approach and a fairer consideration of  the grounds upon which an employee might reasonably refuse such an offer. The arrangements allow a lease car to be accepted as a ‘lease car’ for business miles only or as a ‘pool car’ (see new Annex M 1.iii) i.e. for business use only.

There was also an increase in the passenger rate from 2p to 5p a mile and an increase in Public Transport Rate from 23p to 24p as well as cycle allowances being increased from 6.2p to a minimum of 10p a mile. The pay circular relating to lease cars was also clearer on the need for employers to regularly check HMRC Advisory Fuel Rates for lease (company) car fuel reimbursement.

Public Liability

Increasingly employers are taking steps to ensure that employees who use their own vehicles for business use, sometimes referred to as ‘the Gray Fleet’, are fit to drive, that the vehicle is road worthy and that the driver possesses the correct insurance. The new arrangements ensure that managers undertake appropriate checks when authorising business miles to be travelled by an employee. Before the use of a private car is agreed there must be a consideration of whether or not the travel is necessary and if so can it be more efficiently undertaken by public transport or by some other form of travel

Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

Q – What is the alternative to the new Section 17?

A- Mileage Allowances have always been open to local negotiation. In the absence of a new agreement there is no guarantee that employer’s would continue with the current AFC arrangements. Were AFC Section 17 to be retained as currently drafted there would be little likelihood of employers agreeing to increase mileage rates (or lump sums) on a national basis  in the future. It is important for a mileage reimbursement system to continue to form part of the AFC arrangements.

Q – Who do the new arrangements apply to?

A – It applies to all staff on Agenda for Change terms and conditions and those staff that have AFC mileage allowances built into their own arrangements.

Q – What is wrong with the current system?

A – Mileage reimbursement has been an important issue for car drivers for many years. There has been no in built process to look at motoring costs for NHS staff and changes to NHS rates have only occurred sporadically over the years (the last one a 10% rise in  July 2008). Drivers are usually concerned over the most visible indicator of motoring costs; fuel prices. NHS rates have risen in the past (but never fallen) triggered in the main by sharply rising fuel costs. Where fuel costs have subsequently fallen (and the cost of motoring may also have reduced) the reimbursement rate has remained unchanged. Members regularly complained that the current system is not responsive to changes in the overall cost of motoring. The current system also gives higher reimbursement to larger engine cars driving more miles. This does not support the services commitment to reducing its carbon footprint or to an employer’s responsibility in respect of public liability.

It is usually the cost of fuel that triggers members’ concerns over their level of reimbursement for using their vehicle for work. The cost of fuel has generally risen over the past few years albeit with some occasional falls. While fuel is only a part of the cost of motoring it is understandably the issue that initially causes most concern.

In line with this, the level of reimbursement for motoring costs  for NHS staff were not related to fluctuations in the overall cost of motoring  (fuel, depreciation, insurance, tax etc) and there was no agreed process by which regular discussions could take place. The mileage allowance discussions first commenced in 2008 prior to the current economic crisis and before any public sector pay freeze increases in pension contributions.

In the old mileage allowance system provision was made for engine size i.e. different payments for a 1000cc vehicle and a 1600cc. The new scheme has one payment for all cars regardless of engine size. The payment structure ensures that there is no incentive to drive extra miles.

The new arrangements ensure that costs are monitored regularly and follow changes in the overall cost of motoring.

Q – My NHS organisation says that the new arrangements will cost them more and want the unions to negotiate different arrangements – what do you advise?

A- The new agreement is about setting in place a fair and long term system for the reimbursement of the extra costs associated with using your vehicle for your employers business. The key element of the new arrangement is the regular check on fuel and motoring costs undertaken within the NHS Staff Council. This ensures that the reimbursement keeps a relationship with the costs of motoring and will rise if costs rise in the future. This is something that members wanted and was a central part in our discussions with employers nationally. It should also be remembered that NHS staff are now accepting some risk in the new arrangements by agreeing that if motoring costs fall the rate of reimbursement will fall also. There is no benefit in agreeing an alternative system that does not keep a direct link between the costs of motoring and the level of reimbursement – that is the position we have now. We believe the new arrangements are the best for the future and that they should be implemented as agreed. Staff side organisations do not support local negotiations.

Q – Will the payments change when the fuel costs change?

A – Motoring costs (such as depreciation, tax, insurance and the cost of capital) will be reviewed annually with the cost of fuel being reviewed twice a year. The reviews will follow the publication of AA fuel price reports which are published twice a year. In April/May and October/November. Mileage allowance payments will keep in line with changes in the overall cost of motoring. If the cost of motoring rises above 5% (over a twelve month period) the rate will rise and if below 5% the rate will reduce. It could be the case that fuel costs might rise but this might be equalled out by other costs decreasing.

Q – What is the tax relief I can claim for using my own car for work

A – If you use your own car (van, motor cycle, or bike) for work purposes and are reimbursed at a level below the approved HMRC Approved Mileage Allowance Payments (AMAP) they you are able to receive mileage allowance tax relief on the shortfall. If you are reimbursed above AMAP levels you will be taxed on the excess amount.  This is an annual tax issue. For further information contact your tax office. Your payroll department will be able to give you the details of you tax office.

Q – I am a standard car user and have a car with a 1300cc engine; will this make a difference to my mileage payments?

A – In the new mileage allowance scheme there is no variation of payments between smaller and larger engine sized cars. All vehicles will be treated the same. From July there will be no ‘Standard’ or ‘Regular’ User rates. Based on rates for July 2013 all previous standard users would see an increase in reimbursement.

Q – Why is there no Lump sum in the new mileage allowance scheme?

A – In 2009 feedback from members across the UK stated that the fixed lump sum scheme was unfair as all NHS staff who had to use their vehicle at work should be treated the same irrespective of engine size or miles travelled.

 

Q – How do you expect me to run a car on 24p a mile?

A –  The reduced rate only applies after 3500 business miles have been travelled. That means that the individual will already have received reimbursement for 3500 miles at a higher rate (£2345) for using their vehicle for work. Any reimbursement after 3500 miles should be considered along with the reimbursement for the first 3500 miles when considering whether or not the NHS reimbursement covers the additional costs on a car owner in using their vehicle for work. These rates are not fixed and can rise if costs rise and fall if costs reduce.

Q – Why has the figure of 3,500 miles been used as a cut off point between the lower and higher payments?

A – 3,500 miles has historically been the difference between the standard and regular user. 3,500 miles is also the point where the employer has been able to offer a staff member a lease car. Irrespective of the mileage ‘cut-off’ the key issue is to what extent the total reimbursement received by the driver covers the extra cost of using their vehicle for work. Someone driving 3500 annual business miles will receive (based on the 67/24p assumption) £2345 for the extra costs in using their car for work.

Q – I have a lease car, how does the new deal affect me?

A – The new reimbursement rates do not relate to pool cars, lease car users or company car users who have taken a lease car through a salary sacrifice scheme. If you have a lease car you are reimbursed usually for the cost of fuel used. The new Annex M makes clear that employers should refer regularly to the “HMRC advisory fuel rates”.

Q. When does the 3,500 miles per annum run from, April to April or July to July?

A – The period runs from July to July

Q- I am a designated home worker how am I affected?

A –Paragraph 17.15 in the new agreement requires the employer and employee to agree the normal work base and the home to base return mileage.  When the line manager and employee agree that the employee is based at home for the purposes of mileage claims the employee is reimbursed for all business miles travelled from his/her home to the places visited and back to home.

If you are a home worker and use a lease (company) car you will usually be paid a mileage allowance related to the cost of fuel used (see Annex M).

Q – How will the new scheme make a difference to me as a “Standard” user?

A – At present all Standard Users (based on the 67/23p will see an increase in reimbursement across all engine sizes from July 1.

Q – How will the new deal affect me as current “Regular” car user?

A – For those on regular user, the issue is more complicated as they currently receive a lump sum plus a rate per mile. There is no fixed lump sum in the new arrangements.

Under the new proposals all users would just get a fixed rate for the first 3500 and a reduced rate thereafter. They would receive this reimbursement for miles travelled and would not receive a regular lump sum. For some regular users this will mean an increase in reimbursement while for others they may see a reduction in reimbursement compared to what they currently receive. As mileage allowance is a reimbursement of the extra costs incurred regular Users will wish to consider to what extent the new reimbursement covers the extra costs in using their vehicle for work..

Q – Can my employer insist that I take on a lease car?

A – No. However there may be a reduction in mileage reimbursement if you unreasonably decline such an offer The agreement requires that  the employer and employee discuss the offer of a lease car and  seek an agreement as to whether a lease car is the most appropriate option for business travel – a test of ‘reasonableness’ –  taking into account need and cost. (see Section 17.7) Only if a lease car is turned down unreasonably would the new Reserve Rate (50% of the single rate) be applied. Under the 67/23rates this would mean that the Reserve Rate would be 33p rather than the current 24p on the PTR. Local staff sides may wish to work with employers to develop a consistent approach in how they determine if a rejection of a lease car is reasonable or not in the circumstances.

Q- Can I be forced to take on a Lease Car through ‘salary sacrifice’?

A – No. Neither should a rejection of a salary sacrifice option be seen as a ‘refusal of a lease car’ and there should be no reduction in mileage reimbursement.

Fuel costs

Q – When will there be an increase in my mileage reimbursements?

A – The first calculation of the reimbursement rate was in May 2013 for implementation in July 2013. After that  rates will be calculated twice a year in April/May and October /November. The reimbursements will fluctuate in line with the fuel costs. Fuel costs may increase or decrease depending on the prices at the time of the AA evaluation.

Q – I don’t have a car and use public transport; with the new travel payments include me?

A – Legitimate expenses incurred on business travel will continue to be reimbursed under the employers’ travel policy.

Q – I currently receive Public Transport Rate for coming back into work on-call. Will this payment be retained.

A – The Public Transport rate (PTR) will cease and will be replaced by the ‘Reserve Rate’ the reserve rate will be set at 50% of the single rate. The immediate effect of this will be a rise in reimbursement from 24p a mile to 33p a mile.

Q – How do I know if the NHS reimbursement will cover the extra costs I incur in using my car for work

A – This is not always a straight forward thing to assess. However one way of looking at it could be in relation to the total miles you travel in a year. For example you already own and pay for a car for personal use. Let’s say you drive 15,000 miles a year and of this 5,000 miles (33%) are business miles. You will already be bearing the full cost of your 10,000 personal miles. Under the new arrangements you will receive £2,705 in NHS reimbursement. If each mile travelled for work cost you 16p in petrol (£800) then you could say that the remaining £1905 goes towards all of the other non fuel costs that you have incurred in undertaking the extra miles. You can now consider to what extent the NHS reimbursement of £2,705 covers the extra cost of using your car 50% more (the extra 5,000 miles) than you had planned.

 

Q. Why not just reimburse at the AMAP level ?

A. AMAP is a figure set by Government and subject to possible change by Government. Whilst there is usually a pressure from business drivers to increase the level of tax relief available (AMAP currently 45p for the first 10,000 miles and 25p a mile thereafter) there is also a lobby to reduce that level. This is because some consider that AMAP either encourages people to drive to the maximum number of miles available in the allowance while others feel that the level of allowance overestimates the cost of motoring. The new system, while less than AMAP for some people, does ensure that rising costs will be reflected in the level of reimbursement and not subject to unilateral change. Where NHS reimbursement is less than the HMRC AMAP levels tax relief can be obtained.

 

May 23 2013

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About the Author

Alex Baker
"The reasonable man adapts himself to the conditions that surround him... The unreasonable man adapts surrounding conditions to himself... All progress depends on the unreasonable man."

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